CLOSER 2012 Abstracts


Area 1 - Cloud Computing Fundamentals

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

PROTECTING PRIVATE DATA IN THE CLOUD

Authors:

Lars Rasmusson and Mudassar Aslam

Abstract: Companies that process business critical and secret data are reluctant to use utility and cloud computing for the risk that their data gets stolen by rogue system administrators at the hosting company. We describe a system organization that prevents host administrators from directly accessing or installing eaves-dropping software on the machine that holds the client’s valuable data. Clients are monitored via machine code probes that are inlined into the clients’ programs at runtime. The system enables the cloud provider to install and remove software probes into the machine code without stopping the client’s program, and it prevents the provider from installing probes not granted by the client.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

A PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF A FUNCTIONAL DOMAIN WITHIN A CLOUD

Authors:

Jonathan Eccles and George Loizou

Abstract: This summary describes a specific aspect of the work that has been done to virtualize the IT server estate of a company with a modern business architecture of about 3-400 servers. This results in a practical server environment with the same architecture and servers and integrated networking in an abstracted form by using sets of HP c7000 chassis units. This has been done by applying hypervisor-based Virtualization technologies to clusters implemented across constituent blades between sets of chassis units. This working system is enhanced by enabling specific HP c7000 operational capabilities together with separate virtualization technologies, which are consolidated in a single coherent design model that is enabled as a virtualized system implemented within one to three HP c7000 chassis units on a single site. Furthermore, this system is enhanced by enabling virtual L3 Ethernet via specific HP c7000 chassis operational capabilities which are consolidated in a single coherent design mode. The system is now enhanced to operate on a multiple site basis and also to use physical as well as virtual systems (e.g. servers, appliances, applications, networks, storage) in the same functional domain.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

CACSS: TOWARDS A GENERIC CLOUD STORAGE SERVICE

Authors:

Yang Li, Li Guo and Yike Guo

Abstract: The advent of the cloud era has yielded new ways of storing, accessing and managing data. Cloud storage services enable the storage of data in an inexpensive, secure, fast, reliable and highly scalable manner over the internet. Although giant providers such as Amazon and Google have made a great success of their services, many enterprises and scientists are still unable to make the transition into the cloud environment due to often insurmountable issues of privacy, data protection and vendor lock-in. These issues demand that it be possible for anyone to setup or to build their own storage solutions that are independent of commercially available services. However, the question persists as to how to provide an effective cloud storage service with regards to system architecture, resource management mechanisms, data reliability and durability, as well as to provide proper pricing models. The aim of this research is to present an in-depth understanding and analysis of the key features of generic cloud storage services, and of how such services should be constructed and provided. This is achieved through the demonstration of design rationales and the implementation details of a real cloud storage system (CACSS). The method by which different technologies can be combined to provide a single excellent performance, highly scalable and reliable cloud storage system is also detailed. This research serves as a knowledge source for inexperienced cloud providers, giving them the capability of swiftly setting up their own cloud storage services.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

AN INTELLIGENT CLOUD RESOURCE ALLOCATION SERVICE - Agent-based Automated Cloud Resource Allocation using Micro-agreement

Authors:

Kassidy Clark, Martijn Warnier and Frances M. T. Brazier

Abstract: The Cloud refers to hardware and software resources available across the Internet. The number of competing Cloud Service Providers (CSP) continues to increase as companies outsource their computing infrastructure to the Cloud. In this environment, consumers face several challenges, including finding the least expensive Cloud service configuration, migration between CSPs and dynamically changing resource offerings. To assist consumers in this environment, this paper proposes an Intelligent Cloud Resource Allocation Service (ICRAS). This service maintains an overview of current CSP resources offerings and evaluates them to find the most appropriate configuration given a consumer’s preferences. The service then negotiates a short term micro service agreement with the CSP and monitors the service for any violations. Finally, the service can assist in the migration of the consumer’s data between CSPs.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

CLOUD STORAGE IN A PRIVATE CLOUD DEPLOYMENT - Lessons for Data Intensive Research

Authors:

Victor Chang, Robert John Walters and Gary Wills

Abstract: This paper demonstrates portability for a private cloud deployment, which has a detailed case study about Cloud Storage service developed as part of the Cloud Computing Business Framework (CCBF). Our Cloud Storage design and deployment is based on Storage Area Network (SAN) technologies, details of which in-clude functionalities, technical implementation, architecture and user support. Experiments for data services (backup automation, data recovery and data migration) are performed and results confirm backup automation is completed swiftly and is reliable for data-intensive research. Data recovery result confirms that execution time is in proportion to quantity of recovered data, but the failure rate increases in an exponential manner. Data migration result confirms execution time is in proportion to disk volume of migrated data, but the failure rate increases in an exponential manner. Issues in data recovery and data migration must be resolved prior dealing with petabytes of data. Our Cloud Storage offers cost reduction, time-saving and user friendliness supported by users and is highly relevant to similar portability of private cloud.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

DATA AND COMPUTATION INTEROPERABILITY IN INTERNET SERVICES

Authors:

Sergey Boldyrev, Dmitry Kolesnikov, Ora Lassila and Ian Oliver

Abstract: Next generation distributed systems should be seamlessly spanned around heterogeneous concepts of the information providers, devices manufacturers and the cloud infrastructures. The enabling components such as Data, Computation, Scalable performance and Privacy aspects should be elaborated and leveraged in order to provide a foundation of such systems.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

THE VIRTUAL MARGIN OF ERROR - On the Limits of Virtual Machines in Scientific Research

Authors:

Ulrich Lampe, André Miede, Nils Richerzhagen, Dieter Schuller and Ralf Steinmetz

Abstract: Using Virtual Machines from public cloud providers, researchers gain access to a large pool of experimental infrastructure at comparatively low cost. However, as it is shown in this position paper based on dedicated experiments using real-life systems, Virtual Machines often do not provide accurate time measurements. These limitations are problematic for a variety of use cases, such as the runtime comparison of algorithms in the computer science domain.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

DECOUPLING CLOUD APPLICATIONS FROM THE SOURCE - A Framework for Developing Cloud Agnostic Software

Authors:

Joaquín Guillén, Javier Miranda and Juan Manuel Murillo

Abstract: Cloud computing and the utility computing model have aroused the interest of multiple vendors to provide their own public cloud services. Each vendor provides different services and establishes a series of restrictions for all of the applications deployed within its infrastructure, which results in cloud applications being modeled and developed for specific cloud environments. This leads to a tight coupling of applications to the cloud in which they are deployed, thus complicating their migration to other clouds. In this paper a different approach for developing cloud applications is proposed, based on the separation of cloud related metadata from the source code that comprises an application deployed in a cloud. Separating metadata related to how services are provided by the application and how it consumes cloud specific and remote services will allow developers to be oblivious as to which cloud the application is being developed for. This approach may be used both for developing new cloud applications as well as for migrating legacy software to the cloud.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

SLA BASED SERVICE BROKERING IN INTERCLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Foued Jrad, Jie Tao and Achim Streit

Abstract: The fast emerging Cloud computing market over the last years resulted in a variety of heterogeneous and less interoperable Cloud infrastructures. This leads to a challenging and urgent problem for Cloud users when selecting their best fitting Cloud provider and hence it ties them to a particular provider. A new growing research paradigm, which envisions a network of interconnected and interoperable Clouds through the use of open standards, is Intercloud computing. This allows users to easily migrate their application workloads across Clouds regardless of the underlying used Cloud provider platform. A very promising future use case of Intercloud computing is Cloud services brokerage. In this paper, we propose a generic architecture for a Cloud service broker operating in an Intercloud environment by using the latest Cloud standards. The broker aims to find the most suitable Cloud provider while satisfying the users’ service requirements in terms of functional and non-functional Service Level Agreement parameters. After discussing the broker value-added services, we present in detail the broker design. We focus especially on how the expected SLA management and resource interoperability functionalities are included in the broker. Finally, we present a realistic simulation testbed to validate and evaluate the proposed architecture.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

A NOVEL MULTI-TENANT ARCHITECTURE DESIGN FOR SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Haitham Yaish, Madhu Goyal and George Feuerlicht

Abstract: Software as a Service (SaaS) is a web based delivery model which permits a third party provider offering software services to unlimited number of tenants based on multi-tenant architecture design. Multi-tenancy is the primary characteristic of SaaS, it allows SaaS vendors to run a single instance application which supports multiple tenants on the same hardware and software infrastructure. This application should be highly configurable to meet tenants’ expectations and business requirements. Nevertheless, configuring multi-tenant application is hard and complex task to accomplish. This paper is generally focusing on SaaS multi-tenancy in the context of providing a configurable architecture design to support multi-tenant applications in designing and developing a configurable multi-tenant database schema, User Interface, and access control. This novel configurable multi-tenant architecture design provides critical and fundamental solution to the development of multi-tenant SaaS applications, once it is achieved it will be a vital contribution to SaaS industry.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

SHIBBOLETH WEB-PROXY FOR SINGLE SIGN-ON OF CLOUD SERVICES

Authors:

Christoph Reich and Thomas Rübsamen

Abstract: Single Sign-On (SSO) allows users to access services, for which they possess sufficient access rights, without re-authentication once they are authenticated successfully. Shibboleth supports SSO of web services and allows building federations. In this paper a Shibboleth web proxy is described, which integrates a Shibboleth service provider to manage authentication and extends Cloud management systems by enabling SSO of multiple cloud services. It is shown how this approach can be used for highly dynamic Cloud environments, where services are often added and removed. The Shibboleth web proxy implementation has been contributed to the Open Source Community and is made available in the OpenNebula EcoSystem.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

UNTRACEABLE ANONYMOUS SERVICE CONSUMPTION IN SaaS

Authors:

Vinícius Pacheco and Ricardo Puttini

Abstract: Several cloud computing providers are emerging to provide web services that encapsulate common business logic in the cloud. However, these Software as a Service (SaaS) offers are currently based in trust relationships between cloud consumers and providers. Consumer must trust the provider not to disclose sensitive data exchanged during service provision, as such leak can compromise consumer’s privacy and threaten its business. In this paper, we propose a privacy enhancing framework to protect consumer information privacy against excessive exposure to cloud computing providers. Our design is essentially based on anonymity technology, as conventional encryption and authentication security mechanisms do not supply enough protection to consumer’s privacy; particularly, when the provider itself is considered a threat. The design consists in a multi-layered framework, where different anonymity techniques are employed together to protect the privacy of different types of consumer information, during both administrative (e.g., legal contracting and financial transactions) and technical (e.g., message exchanges) interactions. We also describe a complete connection anonymity SaaS service consumption scheme based on e-cash as the main tool for generating and managing anonymous credentials in the cloud.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

VIDaaS - Design Architecture of Virtual Infrastructure with Database as a Service

Authors:

Asif Akram and Christian Fernau

Abstract: This paper presents design and deployment architecture of research project Virtual Infrastructure with Database as a Service (VIDaaS). VIDaaS supports common requirements of multi-disciplinary researchers and caters for different database types besides the traditional relational database. The ambitious and challenging goals of VIDaaS require innovative and flexible design and deployment architecture. The primary focus of this research paper is to discuss an architecture framework for the existing database system melded with the Cloud computing paradigm in order to improve the scalability and boost the performance of database systems. VIDaaS is based on reusable architectural model benefiting from Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and cloud design which is not limited to DaaS and can be applicable to any Software as a Service (SaaS).

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

VIRTUAL MACHINES FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS

Authors:

Alan H. D. Miller, Iain A. Oliver, Colin Allison and Amirali Sanatinia

Abstract: Multi User Virtual Worlds provide a simulated immersive 3D environment that is similar to the real world. Popular examples include Second Life and OpenSim. The multi-user nature of these simulations means that there are significant computational demands on the processes that render the different avatar-centric views of the world for each participant, which change with every movement or interaction each participant makes. Maintaining quality of experience can be difficult when the density of avatars within the same area suddenly grows beyond a relatively small number. As such virtual worlds have a dynamic resource-on-demand need that could conceivably be met by Cloud technologies. In this paper we make a start to assessing the feasibility of using the Cloud for virtual worlds by measuring the performance of virtual worlds in virtual machines of the type used for Clouds. A suitable benchmark is researched and formulated and the construction of a test-bed for carrying out load experiments is described. The system is then used to evaluate the performance of virtual worlds running in virtual machines. The results are presented and analysed before presenting the design of a system that we have built for managing virtual worlds in the Cloud.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

TASK SCHEDULING IN A FEDERATED CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE FOR BIOINFORMATICS APPLICATIONS

Authors:

C. A. L. Borges, H. V. Saldanha, E. Ribeiro, M. T. Holanda, A. P. F. Araujo and M. E. M. T. Walter

Abstract: Task scheduling is difficult in federated cloud environments, since there are many cloud providers with distinct capabilities that should be addressed. In bioinformatics, many tools and databases requiring large resources for processing and storing enourmous amounts of data are provided by physically separate institutions. This article treats the problem of task scheduling in BioNimbus, a federated cloud infrastructure for bioinformatics applications. We propose a scheduling algorithm based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to perform an efficient distribution for finding the best resources to execute each required task. We developed experiments with real biological data executing on BioNimbus, formed by three cloud providers executing in Amazon EC2. The obtained results show that DynamicAHP makes a significant improvement in the makespan time of bioinformatics applications executing in BioNimbus, when compared to the Round Robin algorithm.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

REVISING RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING SYSTEMS

Authors:

Mehdi Sheikhalishahi and Lucio Grandinetti

Abstract: With the explosive growth of Internet-enabled cloud computing and HPC centers of all types, IT’s energy consumption and sustainability impact are expected to continue climbing well into the future. Green IT recognizes this problem and efforts are under way in both industry and academia to address it. In this paper, we take into account green and performance aspects of resource management. Components of resource management system are explored in detail to seek new developments by exploiting contemporary emerging technologies, computing paradigms, energy efficient operations, etc. to define, design and develop new metrics, techniques, mechanisms, models, policies, and algorithms. In addition, modeling relationships within and between various layers are considered to present some novel approaches.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

USING CLOUDS FOR SCIENCE, IS IT JUST KICKING THE CAN DOWN THE ROAD?

Authors:

Ewa Deelman, Gideon Juve and G. Bruce Berriman

Abstract: In this paper we describe issues related to the execution of scientific workflows on clouds, giving particular emphasis to the challenges faced by scientists when using grids and clouds for workflows. We also mention some existing solutions and identify areas requiring additional work.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

HOW GREEN IS YOUR CLOUD? - A 64-b ARM-based Heterogeneous Computing Platform with NoC Interconnect for Server-on-chip Energy-efficient Cloud Computing

Authors:

Sergio Saponara, Marcello Coppola and Luca Fanucci

Abstract: This position paper discusses the role of energy-efficient cloud-server-on-chip (CSoC) solutions to reduce the total cost of ownership and the ecological impact of cloud computing data centers. A green cloud computing platform, based on a multi core architecture with upcoming 64-b ARM processors of the ARMv8 family, interconnected by a service-aware Network on Chip (NoC) ensuring cache coherency, could reduce costs (due to energy consumption and extra cooling systems) and increase system reliability (by avoiding thermal issues) of cloud data centers. Implementation figures on 28 nm and 20 nm silicon technology nodes from STMicroelectronics are provided.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

FROM GRIDS TO CLOUD - The Pathway for Brain dMRI Cloud Services

Authors:

Tarik Zakaria Benmerar and Fatima Oulebsir-Boumghar

Abstract: In this paper, we present the actual architecture of Acigna-G, our Cloud-oriented Grid Computing platform and the ongoing deployment of a MAS algorithm for brain segmentation. Also, we discuss three important improvements for this platform to allow the deployment of brain dMRI cloud services : HTTP/Restful oriented computing services for the management of user’s service requests, application-level virtualization coupled with distributed computing models, and separation of user request management and computing tasks execution as found on actual PaaS Cloud Services. Such architecture would offer a convenient deployment and use of brain dMRI PaaS/SaaS Cloud Services onto a computing grid.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

ABOUT USING MOBILE DEVICES AS CLOUD SERVICE PROVIDERS

Authors:

Marc Jansen

Abstract: In recent years, the number of reasonable powerful mobile devices increased. In 2011, the number of smartphone (e.g.) increased to more than 300 million units. A lot of research has already been conducted with respect of mobile devices acting as Cloud Service consumers, but still not much effort is put on mobile devices in the role of Cloud Service providers. Therefore, this paper presents an approach that allows to utilize mobile devices like smart phones or tablets as Cloud Service providers. In order to make this a reasonable approach, some of the occurring problems are discussed and it is shown how the presented architecture is able to overcome these problems. Last but not least, this paper describes some performance tests of the chosen implementation for mobile Web Services.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

CLOUD MANAGEMENT ON THE ASSUMPTION OF FAILURE OF RESOURCE DEMAND PREDICTION

Authors:

Tadaoki Uesugi, Max Tritschler, Hoa Dung Ha Duong, Andrey Baboshin, Yuri Glickman and Peter Deussen

Abstract: One of the important issues in cloud computing is an advanced management of large scale server clusters enabling efficient energy use and SLA compliance. That includes smart placement of virtual machines to appropriate hosts and thereby, efficient allocation of physical resources to virtual machines. One of the promising approaches is to optimize the placement based on predicting future requested physical resources for each virtual machine. However, often predictions cannot always be accurate and might cause increasing rates of SLA violation. In this paper we present an adaptive algorithm for predictive resource allocation and optimized VM placement that offers a solution to this problem.

Posters
Paper Nr: 98
Title:

AN OCCI COMPLIANT INTERFACE FOR IAAS PROVISIONING AND MONITORING

Authors:

Salvatore Venticinque, Alba Amato and Beniamino Di Martino

Abstract: In the Cloud scenario provisioning and monitoring play an important role giving the possibility to maintain always the best resources configuration that satisfies the application requirements. Dynamic Cloud provisioning and monitoring allow for the possibility of getting resources in a way that is suited especially well to the business model of IT companies, which can adapt their costs to the current needs continuously and easily. A solution for Cloud resource provisioning and monitoring should also be vendor independent, platform neutral to choose the best proposal among a collection of business offers the widest it is possible. One of the first proposals of standard in Cloud is represented by OCCI (Open Cloud Computing Interface) that is a protocol and API for all kinds of management tasks. In this paper we describe a proposal of extension of OCCI to support provisioning, monitoring and reconfiguration. Furthermore we introduce Cloud Agency, a software platform that complements the common IAAS management facilities with a set of advanced services for dynamic provisioning and monitoring of Cloud resources.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF CLOUD COMPUTING

Authors:

Serdar Yarlikas and Semih Bilgen

Abstract: This position paper presents the current state of the research that aims to assess the economic and technical benefits of cloud computing and to uncover best practices and lessons learned by service providers as well as clients. In the first phase of the study, based on a review of the recent literature on cloud computing principles, applications, achievements and challenges, variables that determine cloud performance and benefits have been identified. Then, axioms and hypotheses on the interrelationships between the variables have been formulated. Verification of the conceptual network of axioms and hypotheses entails exploratory and validatory case studies. The paper elucidates the strengths and weaknesses, while pointing out the opportunities and threats involved in cloud operation and adaptation, specifically in private organizations.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

WILL THE CLOUD MAKE THE CITIZEN MORE VULNERABLE? - Risk and Vulnerability Assessment in Times of Cloud-computing

Authors:

Stefan Scheer, Ioannis Kounelis and Jan Loeschner

Abstract: Through digital traces that are left behind citizens are more and more exposing their personal data, digital identities to third parties in a conscious or mostly unconscious way. The latter is particularly the case for a variety of cloud computing applications implicitly used by a default citizen. To interact in a digital world and to give away personalized information opens the door for several hazards that may occur – deliberately or not. Consequently a citizen becomes vulnerable in various dimensions. Current research tries to re-apply well-known risk analysis strategies within the new context and in particular to cloud-computing scenarios. Final aim would be to identify individual risks in a qualitative and quantitative manner.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

DATA INTEGRATION THROUGH THE CLOUD - How to Combine Internal and External Data Sources – A Design Study

Authors:

Patrik Hitzelberger, Paulo da Silva Carvalho and Fernand Feltz

Abstract: This short paper focuses on the application of cloud computing principles and solutions to the domain of data integration. After an introduction to the topic, data integration is shortly discussed, and some quality criteria for data integration solutions, including infrastructure and the organizational context, are presented. Afterwards, cloud computing and possible cloud-based data integration scenarios are discussed. The before-mentioned quality criteria are revisited especially relative to public cloud deployment scenarios. Finally, a design study for the examination of cloud-based data integration that focuses on open data integration for an environmental data management application is proposed.

Area 2 - Services Science Foundation for Cloud Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 71
Title:

XSpRES - Robust and Effective XML Signatures for Web Services

Authors:

Christian Mainka, Meiko Jensen, Luigi Lo Iacono and Jörg Schwenk

Abstract: XML Encryption and XML Signature are fundamental security standards forming the core for many applications which require to process XML-based data. Due to the increased usage of XML in distributed systems and platforms such as in SOA and Cloud settings, the demand for robust and effective security mechanisms increased as well. Recent research work discovered, however, substantial vulnerabilities in these standards as well as in the vast majority of the available implementations. Amongst them, the so-called XML Signature Wrapping attack belongs to the most relevant ones. With the many possible instances of this attack type, it is feasible to annul security systems relying on XML Signature and to gain access to protected resources as has been successfully demonstrated lately for various Cloud infrastructures and services. This paper contributes a comprehensive approach to robust and effective XML Signatures for SOAP-based Web Services. An architecture is proposed, which integrates the required enhancements to ensure a fail-safe and robust signature generation and verification. Following this architecture, a hardened XML Signature library has been implemented. The obtained evaluation results show that the developed concept and library provide the targeted robustness against all kinds of known XML Signature Wrapping attacks. Furthermore the empirical results underline, that these security merits are obtained at low efficiency and performance costs as well as remain compliant with the underlying standards.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

MANAGING CLOUD COMPUTING - A Life Cycle Approach

Authors:

Gerard Conway and Edward Curry

Abstract: Cloud computing has the promise of significant benefits that include reduced costs, improved service provisioning, and a move to a pay-per-use model. However, there also are many challenges to successfully delivering cloud-based services; including security, data ownership, interoperability, service maturity and return on investment. These challenges need to be understood and managed before attempting to take advantage of what the cloud has to offer. In this paper we introduce a nine-step cloud life cycle that can be used for both the migration and the ongoing management of public, cloud-based services. A consortium of organizations using an open-innovation approach developed the life cycle. This paper describes each step of the life cycle in terms of the key challenges faced, and the recommended activities, with resultant outputs, needed to overcome them.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 24
Title:

CERTIFIED IT SERVICES IN-A-BOX FOR CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Ethan Hadar and Debra J. Danielson

Abstract: Certified IT Services in-a-box position paper describes a conceptual architecture and a debatable approach to increasing trust between cloud players, as well as increasing accountability of cloud services providers. The presented conceptual system is comprised of a combination of contemporary IT management services that provide modeling, assembly, automation, assurance and security of IT services, coupled with insurance-based financial remedies. The integrated system constantly conducts auditing and reporting that will be available upon demand in case of a defined incident, by insurance adjustors. This evidence is provided while maintaining the cloud encapsulation and abstraction premise. Business models that increase cloud services consumption; as well as enterprise level compliance fulfillment are among the offerings of this conceptual system. As a result, this paper leads to a hypothesis on the ability of integrated technologies to increase trust and reduce security concerns in cloud consumption, without detracting from the value proposition for cloud services.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

A FRAMEWORK FOR QOS-AWARE EXECUTION OF WORKFLOWS OVER THE CLOUD

Authors:

Moreno Marzolla and Raffaela Mirandola

Abstract: The Cloud Computing paradigm is providing system architects with a new powerful tool for building scalable applications. Clouds allow allocation of resources on a ”pay-as-you-go” model, so that additional resources can be requested during peak loads and released after that. In this paper we describe SAVER (qoS-Aware workflows oVER the Cloud), a QoS-aware algorithm for executing workflows involving Web Services hosted in a Cloud environment. SAVER allows execution of arbitrary workflows subject to response time constraints. SAVER uses a simple Queueing Network (QN) model to identify the optimal resource allocation; specifically, the QN model is used to identify bottlenecks, and predict the system performance as Cloud resources are allocated or released. Our approach has been validated through numerical simulations, whose results are reported in this paper.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

A CLOUD-BASED SOLUTION FOR DATA QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Authors:

Marco Comerio

Abstract: The application of techniques to improve the data quality of an organization is traditionally costly since different specific tools are required. Potentially, cloud computing models could offer powerful solutions to reduce costs. However, some challenges remain in the widespread acceptance of cloud computing models because they require the sharing of business critical data. Therefore, services for data quality improvements in the cloud should act in compliance with predefined contracts. This paper extends previous works on the specification, selection and evaluation of service and data contracts. Moreover, a cloud-based architecture for data quality improvement that supports contract-based service selection is proposed. Experimental activities on a real scenario demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

QDSL - QUALITY DOMAIN SPECIFIC LANGUAGE FOR CLOUD COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS - Short Research Paper

Authors:

Ethan Hadar, Irit Hadar and Donald F. Ferguson

Abstract: Quality Domain Specific Language (QDSL) is a model-driven approach providing a taxonomy, model, and visual editing tool for evaluating and benchmarking the quality of composite applications in cloud environments. Our language and associated modeling tool provide visual and textual means for constructing mathematical algorithms needed for computing aggregated quality assessment of cloud services. QDSL enables the illustration and definition of metrics, measurements and indicators, relationships for computation, and transformation functions that normalize the measurements into relative quality scoring. As a result, QDSL provides a structure that guides overall quality assessments. The computation algorithm is structured in a visual manner and associates the quality assessments graph with the structure of the cloud composite application in a hybrid environment. QDSL supports transformation from physical measurements into scoring comparative assessments of benchmarked provided IT solutions. This paper presents a basic model for QDSL and examples of usage. A prototypical eclipse EMF modeling tool of QDSL is used for communication, whereas commercial monitoring tools implement the instantiated models for evaluating service qualities.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

IT-AS-A-SERVICE FOR BUILDING VIRTUAL RESEARCH ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Bastian Roth, Matthias Jahn and Stefan Jablonski

Abstract: Virtual research environments are IT systems which support scientists in their daily workflow. Since there is a great number of different research domains, the quantity of utilized applications and hardware resources is immense. In the following, we present a solution how potentially each kind of IT resource like computing power, storage space, desktop applications and web applications can be integrated in form of services (IT-as-a-Service). The composition of certain services defines a scientist’s personal virtual research environment.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

INFUSING SEMANTICS IN WSDL WEB SERVICE DESCRIPTIONS TO ENHANCE SERVICE COMPOSITION AND DISCOVERY

Authors:

Ourania Hatzi, Mara Nikolaidou and Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos

Abstract: Semantic information can significantly enhance web service discovery and composition in large domains, such those facilitated by cloud infrastructure. If semantics awareness is achieved, locating the appropriate web services can be performed taking into account the actual meaning of the information included in the web service descriptions. Furthermore, semantic relaxation is possible; in such cases, approximate solutions can be found. In order to perform semantic relaxation, the semantically equivalent and similar concepts to the original concepts describing the web services have to be identified and their semantic distance has to be evaluated. This paper explores the semantics infusion in cases where such information is not inherent in web service descriptions, that is, in the prominent web service description standard WSDL. Based on semantically enhanced WSDL descriptions, a case where semantic relaxation is performed for web service composition through AI planning is presented, and the way the resulting approximate composite services can be assessed in terms of semantic distance is also discussed.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

LARGE-SCALE LINKED DATA PROCESSING - Cloud Computing to the Rescue?

Authors:

Michael Hausenblas, Robert Grossman, Andreas Harth and Philippe Cudré-Mauroux

Abstract: Processing large volumes of Linked Data requires sophisticated methods and tools. In the recent years we have mainly focused on systems based on relational databases and bespoke systems for Linked Data processing. Cloud computing offerings such as SimpleDB or BigQuery, and cloud-enabled NoSQL systems including Cassandra or CouchDB as well as frameworks such as Hadoop offer appealing alternatives along with great promises concerning performance, scalability and elasticity. In this paper we state a number of Linked Data-specific requirements and review existing cloud computing offerings as well as NoSQL systems that may be used in a cloud computing setup, in terms of their applicability and usefulness for processing datasets on a large-scale.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

TOWARDS A UNIFIED MARKETPLACE FOR FUNCTIONALITY-BASED CLOUD SERVICE DISCOVERY

Authors:

Mohamed Sellami, Walid Gaaloul, Bruno Defude and Samir Tata

Abstract: Cloud Computing brings an unparalleled shift to utility computing by providing unprecedented scalability and flexibility to IT services. Indeed, the concept of Cloud computing is linked intimately those of IaaS, PaaS, SaaS and collectively *aaS (Everything as a Service or Cloud services). This implies a service-oriented architecture where registries play an important role. Registries, which can be as many as the large number of Cloud services provider, compose the market where Cloud consumers and providers go to search and advertise Web services. With the proliferation of Cloud consumers and providers, finding an adequate Cloud service has become a complex task for a Cloud service consumer. In this paper we propose a functionality-driven clustering approach for Cloud service registries. This clustering will be helpful for selecting an adequate registry for service requesters. Since registries and communities are dynamic by nature, we also propose an approach for managing registries and communities to reconcile conflicts resulting from the dynamic change aspect of service registries. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach is usable in realistic situations.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

HOW TO PROVIDE MONITORING FACILITIES TO SERVICES WHEN THEY ARE DEPLOYED IN THE CLOUD?

Authors:

Mohamed Mohamed, Djamel Belaïd and Samir Tata

Abstract: Cloud computing is a new maturing model providing efficient solutions in IT domain involving provisionning of virtualized ressources. Meanwhile, monitoring issue remains an active field of research. In this paper, we introduce a new scalable micro-container that enables different monitoring modes. Unlike the existing initiatives in this field, we propose a framework that automatically adds monitoring capabilities to a given service and encapsulate it in a scalable micro-container.

Posters
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

AGREEING ON AND CONTROLLING SERVICE LEVELS IN SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES

Authors:

Benjamin Heckmann, Andrew D. Phippen, Ronald C. Moore and Christoph Wentzel

Abstract: Business Service Level Agreements (BSLAs) are introduced as a generalised concept to agree on feasibility and workload of business processes hosted in service-oriented architectures as an alternative to technical SLA. Based on BSLAs an according approach to control feasibility at runtime is presented.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF SERVICE ARCHITECTURE IN MOBILE CLOUD APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Huiqun Zhao, Jing Sun and Xiaodong Liu

Abstract: Although software services and service-oriented architecture have been researched widely, most existing research has focused on tools, process and methods of service engineering, and service semantics, and leave the formal specification of many aspects of SOA unsolved yet. One imminent challenge is the lack of the fundamental theoretic study of service architecture evolution, which is critical due to the very dynamic nature of services and service-based systems. This paper contributes to the state of arts by proposing a methodology that supports dynamic service evolution with respect to an algebra model of SOA. In this paper we infer and define service evolution as a paradigm of algebraic homomorphism mapping that can facilitate the analysis of the service architecture evolution with the algebraic method, e.g., the closure and the consistency of service evolution. In this way we develop two types of different service architecture evolution: one is for the reconfiguration of service composition inside a service system; and the other is for the collaboration composition between two service systems. The model has been applied to support the evolution of cloud-based services (as SaaS) which accept pervasive/mobile accesses. A case study combining with the transaction management and service adaptation is carried out in a context-aware tourism service application running in a multi-touch multi-user table providing “intelligent” offering of tourism information. Conclusions are drawn and future work is identified.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

EVALUATING SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS IN THE CLOUD ERA

Authors:

Irit Hadar, Mor Brokman and Ethan Hadar

Abstract: The quality of software architecture solutions is difficult to evaluate, making selection between architecture alternatives cumbersome. The cloud offerings add alternatives, by increasing complexity and dynamic flexibility of underlying deployment considerations. This research aims to identify the architects' main quality concerns regarding the system in three different environments: physical (static) deployment, virtual (private) cloud and public cloud. In this position paper, we present our evaluation of the importance architects attribute to applications characteristics (Functionality, Availability, Usability) and infrastructure and platform characteristics (Efficiency, Serviceability, Portability) in each of the above deployment environments. A survey, in which 34 experienced software architects participated, reveals the differences between quality concerns of architects and end-users, and between the different environments and system layers. Architects consider Portability (dynamic nature of applications and systems) as more important in private and public clouds than in static environments, while in the other quality attributes no significant difference was observed. In addition, architects perceive that end-users do not distinguish between cloud and non-cloud environments, and significantly consider that applications characteristics are more important than infrastructure ones.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

TOWARDS A NEW PaaS ARCHITECTURE GENERATION

Authors:

Claudio Guidi, Paolo Anedda and Tullio Vardanega

Abstract: In this paper we present our vision for a next-generation Cloud Computing PaaS layer intended for openness and federation. We base our vision on the principles of the Service Oriented Architecture paradigm, and discuss some design details of the internals of the PaaS we are currently prototyping.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

AN ADAPTIVE REPLICATION FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING THE QOS OF WEB SERVICES

Authors:

Marwa F. Mohamed, Hany F. ElYamany, Mohamed K. Hussien, Nashwa M. Yhiea and Hamed M. Nassar

Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive framework for managing dynamic replication of Web services in a distributed environment including the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) environment. The framework aims to improve the web services availability and to reduce the response time by supporting an automatic replication of the consumed web services according to environment changing conditions that might occur at the services provider side such as failure or increasing loading. For example, if one service or server fails, the framework replicates automatically the consumed service on another particular selected server based on some Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) including their performance and availability. Further, the framework balances the incoming requests using Round Robin a load-balancing algorithm. Moreover, the proposed framework is designed to predict the load of the involved candidate servers within the replication process through utilizing a statistical regression technique.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

ADAPTIVE SECURITY POLICY MODEL TO DEPLOY BUSINESS PROCESS IN CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE

Authors:

Wendpanga Francis Ouedraogo, Frédérique Biennier and Parisa Ghodous

Abstract: The development of collaborative service ecosystem relies mostly on software services spanning multiple organisations in order to provide agile support for business applications. By moving part of their information system on Cloud infrastructure, companies take advantage of new Business models and scalable environments, increasing IT productivity while reducing IS management costs. Nevertheless, this underlying outsourcing strategy may be braked by a lack of security and trust on this new infrastructure model as traditional security engineering and deployment methods are not designed for such an agile and opened environment. To overcome this limit, we propose a multi-dimensional model integrating both the cloud level (XaaS) and the cloud characteristics (Private, public, hybrid) to generate convenient security policy in a dynamic way. Based on security patterns, our multi-dimensional solution has been implemented to capture security requirements related to both information system design and runtime environment.

Area 3 - Cloud Computing Platforms and Applications

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 31
Title:

ON REVENUE DRIVEN SERVER MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD

Authors:

Laiping Zhao and Kouichi Sakurai

Abstract: As failures are becoming frequent due to the increasing scale of data centers, Service Level Agreement (SLA) violation often occurs at a cloud provider, thereby affecting the normal operation of job requests and incurring high penalty cost. To this end, we examine the problem of managing a server farm in a way that reduces the penalty caused by server failures according to an Infrastructure-as-a-Service model. We incorporate the malfunction and recovery states into the server management process, and improve the cost efficiency of server management by leveraging the failure predictors. We also design a utility model describing the expected net revenue obtained from providing service. The basic idea is that, a job could be rejected or migrate to another server if a negative utility is anticipated. The formal and experimental analysis manifests our expected net revenue improvement.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND OPERATION OF IPv6-ONLY IaaS SYSTEM WITH IPv4-IPv6 TRANSLATOR FOR TRANSITION TOWARD THE FUTURE INTERNET DATACENTER

Authors:

Keiichi Shima, Wataru Ishida and Yuji Sekiya

Abstract: Internet operation is migrating from IPv4-only operation to IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack operation. From the view-point of the operation cost, it is best if the operation can be done only with a single protocol, either IPv4 or IPv6. However, it is mandatory for service providers to accept all three types of users, 1) IPv4-only users who will remain in the Internet for long time, 2) IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack users who will be a dominant users in near future, and 3) IPv6-only users who will appear in the future as IPv6 deployment progresses. In this paper, we propose a recommended operation model designed for the IaaS system operated with IPv6-only network with a wide area L2 network and IPv4-IPv6 translation software for backward compatibility. With our proposal, we can reduce the use of IPv4 addresses in the cloud backend network, and provide high-performance, scalable, and redundant address translation software suitable for the IPv6-only IaaS system that can be one of the reference operation models of future datacenters.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

MULTI-LEVEL GROUPING GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR LOW CARBON VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUDS

Authors:

Fereydoun Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza Farrahi Moghaddam and Mohamed Cheriet

Abstract: Optimization problem of physical servers consolidation is very important for energy efficiency and cost reduction of data centers. For this type of problems, which can be considered as bin-packing problems, traditional heuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) are not suitable. Therefore, other heuristic algorithms are proposed instead, such as Grouping Genetic Algorithm (GGA), which are able to preserve the group features of the problem. Although GGA have achieved good results on server consolidation in a given data center, they are weak in optimization of a network of data centers. In this paper, a new grouping genetic algorithm is introduced which is called Multi-Level Grouping Genetic Algorithm (MLGGA), and is designed for multi-level bin packing problems such as optimization of a network of data centers for carbon footprint reduction, energy efficiency, and operation cost reduction. The new MLGGA algorithm is tested on a real world problem in a simulation platform, and its results are compared with the GGA results. The comparison shows a significant increase in the performance achieved by the proposed MLGGA algorithm.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

USING FACEBOOK ACTIVITY TO INFER SOCIAL TIES

Authors:

Sandra Servia Rodríguez, Rebeca P. Díaz Redondo, Ana Fernández Vilas and José J. Pazos Arias

Abstract: Clearly there is a growing omnipresence of social networking sites in particular and social services in general. Given this translation of social relations into the cloud, services are facing the problem of deciding, for every user, what are the really relevant links to provide a social-sensitive response. For this, we postulate that users’ interaction is a real sign of social relationships which can supplement the topological connections in social sites. To this end, this paper provides a model for calculating the strength of social ties based on interaction information collected from various social APIs in the cloud. From this general model, we detail the deployment of an interaction network for the Facebook case.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

CHOOSING THE RIGHT CLOUD ARCHITECTURE - A Cost Perspective

Authors:

Uwe Hohenstein, Reto Krummenacher, Ludwig Mittermeier and Sebastian Dippl

Abstract: Cloud computing offers IT resources and services as a utility, and enables a much quicker move to market at much lower cost, arguably. The initial expenses for effort and hardware are indeed lower, and potential growth is much easier handled due to the inherited elasticity. However, applications in the cloud can cause significant operational costs - different from on-premises operational costs - and hence unpleasant surprises if not architected right. Cost factors should thus become much more of a core consideration when architecting for the cloud. Different scenarios that are discussed in this paper will show how different architectural decisions result in significantly different operational costs.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

BUSINESS RULE ENGINE-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR SaaS APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Authors:

Zhang Xiuwei, He Keqing, Wang Jian, Wang Chong and Li Zheng

Abstract: Software as a Service (SaaS) is becoming a new direction of software industry in the new cloud computing era. In order to satisfy business policy changes and personalized requirements from different tenants in SaaS applications, business rule management must support multi-tenancy and online customization. This paper proposed a framework based on business rule engine, decoupling of business logic rule from SaaS application, which makes SaaS application more robust and maintainable. It takes business rule as an independent and online maintainable part of SaaS application, which could allow tenants to safely upgrade, delete or create rules during runtime. Finally, a practical case study of absence approval-process in attendance management system evaluates the effectiveness of the framework.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

ADAPTING CLOUD-BASED APPLICATIONS THROUGH A COORDINATED AND OPTIMIZED RESOURCE ALLOCATION APPROACH

Authors:

Patrizia Scandurra, Claudia Raibulet, Pasqualina Potena, Raffaela Mirandola and Rafael Capilla

Abstract: Cloud computing is getting an enormous popularity for software companies as a way to save and optimize the cost of large hardware and software infrastructure organizations demand. Also, the cooperation between cloud layers constitutes a timely research challenge as allocation and optimization of (often virtualized) resources is many times done in isolation or with poor interaction. In this paper we propose a framework that adapts a cloud-based software application by providing an enhanced assembly of resources using the Pareto-optimal solution to optimize the resource allocation with tight cooperation between the cloud layers.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

DESIGNING FOR CAP - The Effect of Design Decisions on the CAP Properties of Cloud-native Applications

Authors:

Vasilios Andrikopoulos, Christoph Fehling and Frank Leymann

Abstract: The limitations of distributed systems to satisfy the combination of consistency, availability and network partitioning tolerance requirements are well-documented and formally proven. There is however a limited amount of works discussing the impact of these limitations on designing applications native to the Cloud. This work addresses this particular need by proposing an approach for considering these requirements while designing an application. Our contributions are therefore a methodology for Cloud-native application design which considers consistency, availability and network partitioning tolerance, and a framework instantiating this methodology by using design patterns and their realization solutions on the Cloud. We also show how the proposed methodology can be used in practice to design an application solution with desired properties.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

INTRUSION TOLERANCE AS A SERVICE - A SLA-based Solution

Authors:

Massimiliano Rak and Massimo Ficco

Abstract: Among the incredible number of challenges in Cloud Computing two of them are considered of great relevance: Service Level Agreement management and Security management. In this paper we will try to show how it is possible, using a cloud-oriented API derived from the mOSAIC project, to build up an SLA-oriented cloud application which enables the delivery of security solutions as a service. We will focus on intrusion tolerance solutions, i.e., systems which grant that a system maintain a (limited) availability even when a security attack take place.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

CLOUD DATA PATTERNS FOR CONFIDENTIALITY

Authors:

Steve Strauch, Uwe Breitenbuecher, Oliver Kopp, Frank Leymann and Tobias Unger

Abstract: Cloud computing enables cost-effective, self-service, and elastic hosting of applications in the Cloud. Applications may be partially or completely moved to the Cloud. When hosting or moving the database layer to the Cloud, challenges such as avoidance of disclosure of critical data have to be faced. The main challenges are handling different levels of confidentiality and satisfying security and privacy requirements. We provide reusable solutions in the form of patterns.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

SERVICE-BASED APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT ON THE CLOUD - State of the Art and Shortcomings Analysis

Authors:

Dinh Khoa Nguyen, Yehia Taher, Mike P. Papazoglou and Willem-Jan van den Heuvel

Abstract: Recently, Cloud Computing has become an emerging research topic in response to the shift from productoriented economy to service-oriented economy and the move from focusing on software/system development to addressing business-IT alignment. From IT perspectives, there is a proliferation of methods for cloud application development. Such methods have clearly shown considerable shortcomings to provide an efficient solution to deal with major aspects related to cloud applications. One of these major aspects is the multitenancy of the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) components used to compose Service-Based Applications (SBAs) on the cloud. Current SaaS offerings are often provided as monolithic one-size-fits-all solutions and give little or no opportunity for further customization. As a result, monolithic SaaS offerings are more likely to show failure in meeting the business requirements of several consumers. In this paper, we analyze the state-ofthe- art of the standardization and methodology support for SBA development on the cloud, identify some shortcomings, and point out the need of a novel approach for breaking down the monolithic stack of cloud service offerings and providing an effective and flexible solution for SBA designers to select, customize, and aggregate cloud service offerings coming from different providers (Nguyen et al., 2011).

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

VISoR - Virtual Machine Images Management Service for Cloud Infrastructures

Authors:

João Pereira and Paula Prata

Abstract: Virtual machine images represent one of the most valuable components in providing a cloud infrastructure, so managing them becomes a key concern in such systems. Each one of the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) offers provides its own version of a local image repository. This fact raises problems when managing multiple environments with different IaaS, or when migrating from one to another, because such images management services are mainly designed to interact with its corresponding IaaS and its own storage system. This article presents VISoR, a work-in-progress project, whose main goal is to achieve an agnostic service for managing virtual machine images among different cloud offers.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

PROPOSED OF A LOAD BALANCING METHOD FOR DATA INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS ON A HYBRID CLOUD ACCOUNTING FOR COST INCLUDING POWER CONSUMPTION

Authors:

Yumiko Kasae and Masato Oguchi

Abstract: Based on the recent explosive increase of information in computer systems, we need a system that can efficiently process large amounts of data with limited resources. In this paper, we propose a method to implement such a system in its Hybrid Cloud environment, implemented as Middleware. Using this Middleware, the user can not only efficiently process large amounts of data but can also control monetary costs, including power consumption, by setting parameters. Furthermore, we evaluate the total costs, calculated by Execution Time, Public Cloud’s Metered Rates and Charge of Power Consumption on the Private Cloud when running our Middleware.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

MINING ON THE CLOUD - K-means with MapReduce

Authors:

Ilias K. Savvas and M-Tahar Kechadi

Abstract: The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework for distributed processing of large data sets, while HDFS is a distributed file system that provides high-throughput access to data-driven applications, and MapReduce is software framework for distributed computing of large data sets. The huge collections of raw data require fast and accurate mining process in order to extract useful knowledge. One of the most popular techniques of data mining is the K-means clustering algorithm. In this paper, we developed a distributed version of the K-means algorithm using the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop Distributed File System. The theoretical and experimental results of the technique proved its efficiency.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

A FEDERATED REPOSITORY FOR PAAS COMPONENTS IN A MULTI-CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Rodrigo García-Carmona, Félix Cuadrado, Álvaro Navas and Juan Carlos Dueñas

Abstract: Cloud computing has seen an impressive growth in recent years, with virtualization technologies being massively adopted to create IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) public and private solutions. Today, the interest is shifting towards the PaaS (Platform as a Service) model, which allows developers to abstract from the execution platform and focus only on the functionality. There are several public PaaS offerings available, but currently no private PaaS solution is ready for production environments. To fill this gap a new solution must be developed. In this paper we present a key element for enabling this model: a cloud repository based on the OSGi component model. The repository stores, manages, provisions and resolves the dependencies of PaaS software components and services. This repository can federate with other repositories located in the same or different clouds, both private and public. This way, dependencies can be fulfilled collaboratively, and new business models can be implemented.

Paper Nr: 116
Title:

ARCHITECTURAL CONCERNS IN MULTI-TENANT SaaS APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Rouven Krebs, Christof Momm and Samuel Kounev

Abstract: Multi-tenant applications serve different customers with one application instance. This architectural style leverages sharing and economies of scale to provide cost efficient hosting. As multi-tenancy is a new concept, a common definition of the word and related concepts is not yet established and the architectural concerns are not fully understood. This paper provides an overview of important architectural concerns and there mutual influences. Beside that, it defines multi-tenancy and differentiates it from several related concepts.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

INTEROPERABILITY AND PORTABILITY OF CLOUD SERVICE ENABLERS IN A PaaS ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

David Cunha, Pedro Neves and Pedro Sousa

Abstract: Nowadays, the competition in the telecommunications market is exciting and new entities with value-added services have emerged over the core network of Telecommunications operators (Telcos). These new participants have taken out the operators’ relevance since they are entirely agnostic from infrastructure service connectivity. Therefore Telcos, like Portugal Telecom Inovac¸ ˜ao (PTIN), need to focus on the provision of services to a user’s point of view to not become just a dumb-pipe between the consumers and Cloud service providers. This paper proposes a definition of a distributed architecture that allows developers to create and expose services through a Service Delivery Platform (SDP). The benefit of such Cloud-enabled SDP architecture is the portability of service enablers between Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) providers through a standardized API. Service developers may thus select the more suitable PaaS offering in order to build on-top applications, based on the performance required by a service. An example of applications which can take advantage from more versatile Cloud platforms, is the delivery of mobile context-aware services that react to both environment and user conditions selecting the right type of content (e.g. photos, videos, etc.) to deliver.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

CLOUD BASED HIMS - An Indian Perspective

Authors:

Sourav Saha and Ambuj Mahanti

Abstract: The advent of Cloud Computing has opened up newer avenues for business. Traditional industry verticals like the healthcare are yet to reap the benefits of such cutting-edge technology in India. In an age of collaboration over virtual medium, the lack of coordination and an effective communication mechanism is creating information “silos” that are not propagated at other levels. In this paper we briefly discuss the state of Health Information Management Systems (HIMS) in India, the challenges faced en-route deployment of the solution. We then introduce some interesting aspects of cloud computing to show that how a cloud-based system can help reduce the technical barriers to HIMS acceptance and endorsement. Our contribution lies in addressing issues for HIMS deployment in an Indian scenario and arguing for a cutting-edge technology like Cloud Computing as an agent of change.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

THE glideinWMS APPROACH TO THE OWNERSHIP OF SYSTEM IMAGES IN THE CLOUD WORLD

Authors:

Igor Sfiligoi, Anthony Tiradani, Burt Holzman and Daniel C. Bradley

Abstract: Scientific communities that are accustomed to use Grid resources are now considering the use of Cloud resources. However, moving from the Grid to the Cloud brings along the need for the creation and maintenance of the system image used to configure the provisioned resources, and this presents both opportunities and problems for the users. The impact is especially interesting in the context of glideinWMS due to its layered architecture. This paper describes the various options available to the glideinWMS project team, their advantages and disadvantages, and explains why one of them is to be preferred.

Posters
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

WHAT COST US CLOUD COMPUTING? - A Case Study on How to Decide for or Against IaaS based Virtual Labs

Authors:

Nane Kratzke

Abstract: Coud computing is characterized by ex ante cost intransparency making it difficult – from a decision point of view – to decide for or against a cloud based approach before a system enters its operational phase. This contribution develops a four step decision making model and describe its application by a performed use case analysis of the higher education domain which might be interesting for colleges, universities or other IT training facilities planning to implement cloud based training facilities. The developed four step decision making model of general IaaS applicability can be used to decide whether a IaaS cloud based system approach is more cost efficient than a dedicated approach.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

HAMAKE: A DATA FLOW APPROACH TO DATA PROCESSING IN HADOOP

Authors:

Vadim Zaliva and Vladimir Orlov

Abstract: Most non-trivial data processing scenarios using Hadoop typically involve launching more than one MapReduce job. Usually, such processing is data-driven with the data funneled through a sequence of jobs. The processing model could be expressed in terms of dataflow programming, represented as a directed graph with datasets as vertices. Using fuzzy timestamps as a way to detect which dataset needs to be updated, we can calculate a sequence in which Hadoop jobs should be launched to bring all datasets up to date. Incremental data processing and parallel job execution fit well into this approach. These ideas inspired the creation of the hamake utility. We attempted to emphasize data allowing the developer to formulate the problem as a data flow, in contrast to the workflow approach commonly used. Hamake language uses just two data flow operators: fold and foreach, providing a clear processing model similar to MapReduce, but on a dataset level.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

A CLOUD STORAGE PLATFORM IN THE DEFENSE CONTEXT - Mobile Data Management with Unreliable Network Conditions

Authors:

Jan Sipke Van der Veen, Mark Bastiaans, Marc De Jonge and Rudolf Strijkers

Abstract: This paper discusses a cloud storage platform in the defense context. The mobile and dismounted domains of defense organizations typically use devices that are light in storage, processing and communication capabilities. This means that it is difficult to store a lot of information on these devices locally, but also that it is infeasible to rely on a central storage system that is accessible through a network. The concept of Information of Interest (IoI) is introduced to denote the information demand of a user and its devices and applications. A novel storage platform is designed and tested that uses well-known techniques such as synchronization, caching and discovery, and uses the IoI to determine the storage strategy. A sample application was created that runs on personal computers, mobile phones and tablets. Manual and automated tests were run to show that the platform behaves as expected.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

OpenCF-R: R IN THE CLOUD

Authors:

J. C. Castillo, F. Almeida, V. Blanco and A. Santos

Abstract: One of the main goals of cloud computing-oriented environments is to offer access to distributed resources through interfaces and technologies based on web services. OpenCF is a portable framework that shares these goals and can be used as a development platform that offers hardware and software as a service. We include in this paper how to adapt an OpenCF portal to add and execute statistical package R routines. Thus, we contemplate the option that user can launch or incorporate R scripts as a new service dynamically to the portal, making remote computing easier for inexpert users. Automatic management and dynamic aggregation of R services are showed as new concepts in this context.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

CLOUD COMPUTING: RETURN ON INVESTMENT - The Portuguese Higher Education Case Study

Authors:

Jorge Sousa, Pedro Assis and Miguel Leitão

Abstract: This work is about return on investment (ROI) estimation based on a set of scenarios related with Cloud services adoption by Portuguese higher education (HE) institutions. The adopted methodology required the development of a survey and its distribution among institutions. The collected data allowed us to evaluate a set of indicators and metrics in order to design ROI models. With such models it was possible to estimate the cost benefit of Cloud Computing paradigm in the context of Portuguese HE infrastructures and services.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

PaaS ELEMENTS FOR HOSTING SERVICE-BASED APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Sami Yangui and Samir Tata

Abstract: Cloud Computing is a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. It typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. In this environment, there are several issues related to the inadequacies of hosting platforms and mechanisms to ensure the smooth developing and running of service-based applications (communication protocols, ESB, Service containers, etc.). In this paper, we present a new comer of platform as a service (PaaS) based on our already developed service micro-containers to avoid compatibility and portability constraints imposed by classical Cloud platforms. Several platform use cases are discussed.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

OPERATIONS RESEARCH AS A SERVICE

Authors:

Mehdi Sheikhalishahi, Demetrio Laganà and Lucio Grandinetti

Abstract: In this paper, we propose cloud solutions to provide Operations Research services to scientists. Currently, users must install Operations Research software tools or develop algorithms in order to tackle their problems.

Area 4 - Cloud Computing Enabling Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 47
Title:

HYBRID CLOUD ARCHITECTURE FOR SHORT MESSAGE SERVICES

Authors:

Yrjo Raivio, Oleksiy Mazhelis, Koushik Annapureddy, Ramasivakarthik Mallavarapu and Pasi Tyrväinen

Abstract: Dedicated and expensive computing platforms are commonly applied to mobile network systems. This is necessary, despite the economic burden, due to strict performance requirements in availability, latency and throughput. However, cloud computing is changing the rules of the game by offering cost efficient and high performance computer systems. Pay-per-use principle is helping network administrators to scale the computing capacity on a need basis, reducing both capex and opex costs. Several networks can benefit from this advantage in wireless services, including both end user and internal back end services. The focus in this paper is on the Short Message Service (SMS), which is one of the most successful and widespread end user services after voice in mobile networks. The SMS Center (SMSC) is used as a test bed to optimize the usage of public and private clouds in network operations, both in technology and business. This paper presents a hybrid cloud architecture that enables an automatic up-and-down-scaling of the system, using dynamic resource provisioning and depending on the service load. In addition, a cost analysis to find the optimal balance between public and private clouds is described. Finally, the proposed solution is thoroughly evaluated, future research ideas are highlighted and conclusions are drawn.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

TOWARDS BIOMETRIC-BASED AUTHENTICATION FOR CLOUD COMPUTING

Authors:

Kok-Seng Wong and Myung-Ho Kim

Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging technology that allows different service providers to offer services in an on-demand environment. Due to the advantages such as flexibility, mobility, and costs saving, the number of cloud user has increased tremendously. Consequently, a more secure and privacy preserving authentication system is becoming important to ensure that only the data owner or the authorized user can gain access and manipulate data stored in the cloud. In the current approach, the service provider authenticates its users based on the credential submitted such as password, token and digital certificate. Unfortunately, these credentials can often be stolen, accidentally revealed or hard to remember. In view of this, we propose a biometric-based authentication protocol, which can be used as the second factor for the cloud users to send their authentication requests. In our solution, the credential submitted by the users consists of the biometric feature vector and the verification code. For the user to successful authenticate, both the biometric feature vector and the verification code must be combined, transformed, and shuffled correctly. Our proposed solution not only provides the security mechanism for the authentication process, but also supports the privacy protection for all sensitive information of the user.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

SECURELY LAUNCHING VIRTUAL MACHINES ON TRUSTWORTHY PLATFORMS IN A PUBLIC CLOUD - An Enterprise’s Perspective

Authors:

Mudassar Aslam, Christian Gehrmann, Lars Rasmusson and Mats Björkman

Abstract: In this paper we consider the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud model which allows cloud users to run their own virtual machines (VMs) on available cloud computing resources. IaaS gives enterprises the possibility to outsource their process workloads with minimal effort and expense. However, one major problem with existing approaches of cloud leasing, is that the users can only get contractual guarantees regarding the integrity of the offered platforms. The fact that the IaaS user himself or herself cannot verify the provider promised cloud platform integrity, is a security risk which threatens to prevent the IaaS business in general. In this paper we address this issue and propose a novel secure VM launch protocol using Trusted Computing techniques. This protocol allows the cloud IaaS users to securely bind the VM to a trusted computer configuration such that the clear text VM only will run on a platform that has been booted into a trustworthy state. This capability builds user confidence and can serve as an important enabler for creating trust in public clouds. We evaluate the feasibility of our proposed protocol via a full scale system implementation and perform a system security analysis.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

M4CLOUD - GENERIC APPLICATION LEVEL MONITORING FOR RESOURCE-SHARED CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Toni Mastelic, Vincent C. Emeakaroha, Michael Maurer and Ivona Brandic

Abstract: Cloud computing is a promising concept for the implementation of scalable on-demand computing infrastructures, where resources are provided in a self-managing manner based on predefined customers requirements. A Service Level Agreement (SLA), which is established between a Cloud provider and a customer, specifies these requirements. It includes terms like required memory consumption, bandwidth or service availability. The SLA also defines penalties for SLA violations when the Cloud provider fails to provide the agreed amount of resources or quality of service. A current challenge in Cloud environments is to detect any possible SLA violation and to timely react upon it to avoid paying penalties, as well as reduce unnecessary resource consumption by managing resources more efficiently. In resource-shared Cloud environments, where there might be multiple VMs on a single physical machine and multiple applications on a single VM, Cloud providers require mechanisms for monitoring resource and QoS metrics for each customer application separately. Currently, there is a lack of generic classification of application level metrics. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for classifying and monitoring application level metrics in a resource-shared Cloud environment. We present the design and implementation of the generic application level monitoring system. Finally, we evaluate our approach and implementation, and provide a proof of concept and functionality.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

A SEMANTIC DISCOVERY FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT SUPPLY-DEMAND MATCHMAKING IN CLOUD SERVICE MARKETS

Authors:

Giuseppe Di Modica and Orazio Tomarchio

Abstract: To date a few, big providers dominate the market of Cloud resources. They provide proprietary solutions through inflexible pricing and SLA schemes. On the research side, the community is working to define specifications and standards on several aspects of the cloud technology. When standards will get mature, interoperability among clouds will be a reality. Customers will be no more locked-up to any proprietary technology and new players will have the chance to enter the market. The competition challenge will be played on the real capability of providers to accommodate customers’ requests in a flexible way and to supply high and differentiated QoS levels. In this market scenario a mechanism must be devised to support the matchmaking between what providers offer and what customers’ applications demand. In this work we propose the definition of a semantic model that helps customers and providers to characterize their demands/offers, and provide semantic tools performing the matchmaking in such a way to maximize both the provider’s profit and the customer’s utility.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

IMPROVING WEB SERVICES PERFORMANCE, ONE STEP AT A TIME

Authors:

Miguel L. Pardal, Joana Paulo Pardal and José Alves Marques

Abstract: Web Services were designed for Enterprise systems. They are a flexible but complex technology, with numerous performance pitfalls for developers. They also have significant overhead when compared with platform-specific solutions (e.g. Java RMI). The end solutions have to combine (virtualized) platform, application framework, and application-specific code. As a result of this complexity, the performance of the final application is often disappointing and requires improvement. This paper describes the implementation of performance tools for an open-source application framework based on the Java platform and presents the findings of a detailed assessment of Web Services performance using the newly developed tools. The challenges, techniques, and lessons learned are relevant beyond the scope of the used framework because widely used open-source libraries were studied as well, namely: Hibernate, JAX-WS, and Log4J.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 40
Title:

SeC2: SECURE MOBILE SOLUTION FOR DISTRIBUTED PUBLIC CLOUD STORAGES

Authors:

Juraj Somorovsky, Christopher Meyer, Thang Tran, Mohamad Sbeiti, Jörg Schwenk and Christian Wietfeld

Abstract: Cloud Computing is an emerging technology that attracts increasing attention as a high-performance and low-cost solution to process arbitrarily huge data and share them among different users and organizations. Nonetheless, this technology rises new questions on security and privacy, especially when working with highly confidential data. Existing solutions offering end-to-end security such as TLS are of no help since the stored data is only encrypted during their transport. Therefore, a message-level security must at least be applied to protect those data during and after the storing process. This paper investigates a novel solution for secure data storage in the cloud. It presents a security concept allowing each client to encrypt outgoing data on one’s mobile device and share it among a defined user group while using a seamless service provision. As our concept is used transparently as well as independently on each device, users keep full control over their data and almost no changes on the existing infrastructure of cloud storage services are needed.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

A SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED LOAD ADAPTATION IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

Anna Schwanengel, Michael C. Jaeger and Uwe Hohenstein

Abstract: Nowadays, cloud computing promises to supply a theoretically infinite resource amount, while enabling instance elasticity. However, using extra capacity requires organizational activities and leads to costs. To keep this overhead minimal, adding and releasing resources need to be well-scheduled. Therefore, it is inevitable to prepare an appropriate allocation automatism that considers differences in dynamics and price models of cloud computing. We present the idea for a system that effectively manages varying loads with regard to emerging costs, provisioning time, and customer service level agreements (SLAs). Contrary to existing, threshold-based solutions, our approach considers system observations oft he past, domain-specific load behaviours as well as external knowledge. That way, the system detects load patterns and adapts accordingly.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

A DEPENDABLE AND SECURE AUTHORISATION SERVICE IN THE CLOUD

Authors:

Christian Neuhaus, Martin von Löwis and Andreas Polze

Abstract: Cloud-based exchange of sensitive data demands the enforcement of fine-grained and flexible access rights, that can be time-bounded and revoked at any time. In a setting that does not rely on trusted computing bases on the client side, these access control features require a trusted authorization service that mediates access control decisions. Using threshold cryptography, we present an implementation scheme for a distributed authorization service which improves reliability over a single service instance and limits the power and responsibility of single authorization service nodes.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

LIMITING DISCLOSURE FOR DATA STREAMS IN THE CLOUD

Authors:

Wee Siong Ng, Huayu Wu, Wei Wu and Shili Xiang

Abstract: The rapidly increasing number of sensors and surveillance devices as well as the coming of age of pervasive and cloud computing are fostering applications driven by real-time stream data management. As more and more data stream processing engines (and services) will be deployed in the cloud, we feel it is critical to enable the data stream owners to control who can access their data streams for what purposes under what conditions. Therefore, we design an architecture to support data stream management in the cloud with privacy-preserving capabilities. In this paper, we focus on one of the premier principles of data privacy, limited disclosure. We design an access control framework, to define privacy policies and efficiently enforce these privacy policy rules from stream-level to tuple-level granularity.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

LIGHTWEIGHT DISTRIBUTED ATTESTATION FOR THE CLOUD

Authors:

Martin Pirker, Johannes Winter and Ronald Toegl

Abstract: Moving local services into a network of Cloud nodes raises security concerns, as this affects control over data and code execution. We leverage the Trusted Platform Module and Trusted Execution Technology of modern platforms to detect malicious Cloud nodes running untrusted software configurations. To achieve this, we propose a node-to-Cloud join protocol that enforces remote attestation.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

CSLA: A LANGUAGE FOR IMPROVING CLOUD SLA MANAGEMENT

Authors:

Yousri Kouki and Thomas Ledoux

Abstract: Cloud computing is a paradigm for enabling remote, on-demand access to a set of configurable computing resources as a service. The pay-per-use model enables service providers to offer their services to customers in different Quality-of-Service (QoS) levels. Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a negotiated agreement between a service provider and a customer where QoS parameters specify the quality level of service that the service provider have to guarantee. However, due to the dynamic nature of the Cloud and its instability, some SLA violations can occurred and the service providers can be charged for penalties. In this paper, we aim at addressing the Cloud instability to better control SLA management (in particular SLA violations) and indirectly the Cloud elasticity. We propose CSLA, a new SLA language directly integrating some features dealing with QoS uncertainty and Cloud fluctuation. In our evaluation, we present a novel profit model for service provider and new algorithms (for admission control and scheduling) to meet SLA requirements (e.g. prevent SLA violations) while tackling scalability and dynamic issues.

Posters
Paper Nr: 53
Title:

QUALITY OF SERVICE FOR DATABASE IN THE CLOUD

Authors:

Flávio R. C. Sousa, Leonardo O. Moreira, Gustavo A. C. Santos and Javam C. Machado

Abstract: Cloud computing is a recent trend of technology that aims to provide on-demand services following a pay-per-use model. In the cloud, the service user has some guarantees, such as performance and availability. These guarantees of quality of service are defined between the service provider and user and are expressed through a service level agreement. There are many models for agreement and quality of services in cloud computing. However, most of these models are multipurpose and do not deal with data management aspects in the cloud. This paper presents QoSDBC, an approach to quality of service for database in the cloud. This approach can be used by providers to improve the quality of their services and encompasses different aspects such as response time, throughput, availability and consistency. In order to evaluate QoSDBC, some experiments that measure the quality of service are presented.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

SELF-AWARE DEPLOYMENT ENFORCEMENT OF VIRTUALIZED AND CLOUD-BASED IMAGES

Authors:

Ethan Hadar, Amir Jerbi and Irit Hadar

Abstract: This position paper presents our approach for deployment enforcement of virtual images (VM), in order to prevent an unauthorized usage, potential insider threat, and theft of VMs. In existing systems, regular images in a virtual environment can be mounted and installed in a different location, while our system prevents the intentional and unintentional roaming of these images, triggered by either humans or automation tools. This paper proposes an approach that secures installation location according to policy in virtualized environments, by intercepting the image installation process.